Numero 3/2021

Editoriale di Bruno Maria Bilotta

Il Covid-19 e il “mistero” Africa. Fra diritto alla differenza e globalizzazione ansiogena: considerazioni socio-antropologiche

di Elisa Pelizzari

Abstract: This socio-anthropological contribution intends to focus attention on Africa, a space that has remained on the margins of the flow of information that has submerged us – since the first months of 2020 – with the worsening of the health crisis connected to Covid-19. The analysis concerns in particular the sub-Saharan countries of the French-speaking area, with some references to South Africa, the state of the continent most affected by the pandemic. The period taken into consideration extends from March to September 2020 and the aim is to show how, compared to the first catastrophic hypotheses on the consequences of the spread of the virus in Africa, the reality on the ground is turning out to be quite different.

Keywords: Africa, Covid-19, socio-anthropology of illness, human rights, mass media.

Quattro modelli di prevenzione rivisitati alla luce della pandemia Covid-19

di Jean-Pierre Dozon

Abstract: This anthropological article proposes to revisit four prevention models concerning illness (model of profane construction, magical-religious model, Pasteur model and contractual model) in light of the Covid-19 pandemic. As a result, it shows that their implementation having been the responsibility of the States, they have had to change variably into states of emergency; which revealed a strong tension between the global turn of the pandemic and the responses in terms of global health.

Keywords: Covid-19, socio-anthropology of illness, model of secular constraint, global pandemic, states of emergency.

Da ebola al coronavirus. La disuguaglianza sociale e la solidarietà viste dall’Africa

di Abdoulaye Wotem Somparé

Abstract: Starting from his experience as a socio-anthropological consultant to the WHO at the time of the Ebola outbreak in the Republic of Guinea (2014-2015), the author analyzes the implications of the current coronavirus pandemic (March 2020), drawing some lessons from what happened in West Africa some years ago (Rep. of Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia).

Keywords: Africa (Guinea), ebola, Covid-19, social inequalities, socio-anthropology of illness.

SARS CoV2: un’emergenza complessa. Contraddizioni, conflitti e sostenibilità

di Maria Luisa Maniscalco

Abstract: The Covid-19 pandemic has represented and continues to represent a systemic risk of considerable importance that has affected many aspects of collective life at all levels. The intersection of the different levels did not leave the political decision makers of the various countries of the globe indifferent, all called to respond to this challenge and committed to developing emergency strategies.

Keywords: Covid-19, Sars, sociology, state of emergency, conflicts.

Paura, Sicurezza e Solidarietà sociale

di Bruno Maria Bilotta

Abstract: Fear can concern both a single social subject and collective ones: this clarification seems pivotal, precisely to underline how social fear can widespread but not in a generalized way or generic trend, a trend that affects social groups, or specific, identifiable social subjects, with precise social interests, and with equally specific and neat socio-economic characteristics, in a nutshell: more generic social groups and with different, heterogeneous social characteristics. Solidarity means making a community of communities, that is, makingthe world a genuine common community, especially and above all in moments of fear, anguish and under the siege of a pandemia.

Keywords: Fear, security, safety,  social solidarity.

Covid-19 e potere burocratico tra stato d’emergenza ed esigenza di politica in Europa

di Francesco Petrillo

Abstract: The Covid-19 pandemic definitively breaks out veins discovered in the ganglia of Western socio-political systems, that regulat contemporary complex societies. Bureaucratic power, for more than a century capable of absorbing and neutralizing political power, shows itself unable, with its methods and procedures, to face the unexpected, not only in the possible legal reality (Weimar) of Schmittian memory, but also to the necessity and urgency due to social terror – not preordained for the purpose of political war (foreign fighters not structured in strategies of tension) – and to the sudden epidemic that cannot be controlled with the available pharmacology and health systems. From the ashes of the reassuring convictions of bureaucratic rationality the need for politics emerges.

Keywords: Bureaucratic power – political power – exception – pandemic – terror.

L’Afrique et le Sénégal dans la pandémie, quelques notes pour une observation socio-anthropologique de la crise.

di Felice Maria Barlassina

Abstract: The emergence of the virus in Africa and Senegal has manifested a different incidence and specific social consequences. This essay proposes a reading of African and Senegalese society in the context of the pandemic, starting from some observations, subject to cultural comparison, expressed by Edgard Morin, in one of his recent books.

Keywords: Africa, Senegal Pandemic, Senegalese society, Edgard Morin. Anthropology and sociology.

Global Governance di una Crisi Pandemica

di Emilia Ferone, Sara Petroccia, Andrea Pitasi

Abstract: Global Governance of a Pandemic Crisis begins with the central argument that leads to the theoretical, epistemological and policy goal of this essay: a global problem, lasting at least two years and with indirect consequences destined to cover a much longer time horizon, with universalistic scientific contents (such as a virus, for example, that has neither passport, nor nationality) cannot be addressed with local political solutions, affected by methodological nationalism over a period of ephemeral contingencies and an increasingly circumstantial and localized geo-territorial policy. We cannot imagine tackling global problem setting and problem solving through contingent legal and political tools or even by letting news turn a fairy into a postmodern language game. Five operational questions are therefore formulated as an escape from a simplistic political – journalistic – national approach that is totally inadequate to deal with the complexity of the current pandemic crisis.

Keywords: Hypercitizen – European Union- Pandemic Crisis – Methodological Nationalism- World Citizen.

Numero 2/2020

Editoriale di Bruno Maria Bilotta

Fondamenti etico-sociali del diritto in Rosmini

di Giovanni Chimirri

Abstract: Rosmini worked assiduously for social harmony and the correct relationship between religion and the state. In this article, focusing on the theme of the moral foundation of law and of rights (following closely the Rosminian texts), both rejecting legal formalism and utilitarianism, and proposing a “gius-personalism”. Society cannot stand if it does not work for the spiritual progress of the human being as an integration of the mere material well-being: not just the correlation of ends and the observance of the procedures, if everything is not together good and honest; otherwise we remain stuck in an illusory happiness and the human soul remains unsatisfied.

Keywords: State/religion, legal formalism, ethics, person, happiness.

Stato e democrazia in alcuni scritti politici di Romano Guardini

di Gennaro Cicchese

Abstract: Often something is better known and appreciated through its opposite. This also happens for the great human realities: freedom, justice, peace. To understand this, one must go through the painful crucible of slavery, injustice and war. Therefore, it is with democracy, which you can appreciate better when you have escaped the fury of totalitarianism. This paper intend to talk about democracy starting from a specific historical period, the one between the two world wars, with the rise of Bolshevik and Nazi-fascist totalitarianism. The gaze is that of a sensitive and attentive author ‒ Romano Guardini ‒ defined not by chance Praeceptor Germaniae, because he knew how to dose the antivirus in a time when the virus was already active and was dangerously and ruthlessly investing Europe and the whole world.

Keywords: State, Democracy, Representation, Participation, Romano Guardini.

Mafia e società: area grigia, economia legale, economia illegale

di Marialaura Cunzio

Abstract: The essay contains a critical reflection on the subject of the mafia and society and on the relations between the legal economy and the illegal and mafia economy.

Keywords: mafia, society, gray area and social legitimation.

Il riconoscimento dei diritti fondamentali nel conflitto sociale

di Enrico M.G. Damiani di Vergada Franzetti

Abstract: This scientific paper examines fundamental rights and related legal institutions, as well as the importance of social conflict in the effort to acquire scarce resources. All this without forgetting the human rights that represent the structure of the conflict. 

Keywords: human rights, social conflict, élites, jurisdiction.

Definire la sociologia del diritto tra scienze umane e tecnologie avanzate

di Antonio Dimartino

Abstract: The paper considers some significant aspects of the growing diffusion of technology in the society. The author draws attention to a general theoretical placement of the dynamics among law, technology and society and on the role of Sociology of law.

Keywords: Sociology of law, society, human sciences, technology.

Marx : une critique économique de Proudhon ?

di Malao Kanté

Abstract: The problematic of value in Marx is a little complex nevertheless, it is always part of the purely capitalist production. Value is first and foremost capital. Moreover, in many respects, the two notions merge (in most theorists). This is how Marx himself defines capital as nothing but value that values itself. In the movement of goods, we realize that the money factor is the most dynamic, the most coveted and the circulation is useful only when this money comes back with a high percentage, of the added value, that is to say value that creates value.

Keywords: Value, Capital, Production, Money, Merchandise.

El debido Proceso en el capítulo VI del Título V de la Constitución de la República de Cuba

di Francesco Petrillo

Abstract: The new Cuban constitution arouses interest in the juridical-political community due to some of its norms which show attention to the juridical concept of a right process. Detect the influences and the transposition, even if probably implicit and even unwanted, of the studies of the Harvardian jurisprudence, for the necessity to hold together the rights of the majority politically, summarized in the written laws, of which the strong minorities took possession, and minority rights, which have not produced laws, but are now the majority of the population. A proportional reversal of the democratic anomaly is channeled into a need for justice, if not substantial, at least juridical-methodological. The impossibility of guaranteeing human justice cannot be separated from guaranteeing the best possible means for the juridical decision.

Keywords: Right process vs fair process, jurisprudence, law, rights, juridical decision.

Tra le pieghe della sociologia giuridica in Italia.

La presenza assente di Giuseppina Nirchio

di Alberto Scerbo

Abstract: In this work there are the different directions followed by legal sociology in the development phases following its birth: the more theoretical ones referring to the analysis of the process of formation and application of law and those relating to the behaviours of the active protagonists of legal dynamics, as well as those referring to the effects that affect the passive subjects of the life of law. Giuseppina Nirchio’s proposal exalts, in a critical version, the limits of positivist constructions and at the same time highlights the shortcomings that both followers of neokantism and those of neo-idealist extraction are facing. From this point of view his thought does not differ substantially from the observations of Renato Treves, who, in outlining the panorama of Italian social thought, highlights a trend, all positivist, aimed at elaborating a historicist and spiritualist social philosophy on the one hand and an idealist one on the other, which is directed towards the configuration of a metaphysics of society.

Keywords: Sociology of law, justice, Treves, Nirchio.

Numero 1/2019

Editoriale di Bruno Maria Bilotta

Vincenzo Tomeo: un’eredità di Bruno Maria Bilotta

Abstract: Thirty years after the death of Vincenzo Tomeo, he proposes a scientific memory of the development of his thought together with some personal memories. His legacy, which is almost entirely focused on an innovative and unique proposal of social conflict, is more a legacy of the highest scientific and human value.

Keywords: Tomeo, I remember, Conflict, Judge, Interpret

Antropologia giuridica e diritti umani. Dichiarazioni di principi e realtà interculturali di Felice Maria Barlassina

Abstract : The anthropological of law approach to Human rights declarations in Islam and in African human right shows a particularity culture origin and specificity of human right consideration. The analysis is an accurately investigation in the African and Islam traditional law. The Human Right perspective is strictly bound to original and traditional culture. The concepts of identity and alterity are the most important references to right implementation in the human right system. 

Keywords: Anthropology of law, Human rights, Islam, African Law, human rights declarations, Identity, alterity.

Legal Decision vs. Security State di Francesco Petrillo

Abstract: Legal positivism of modernity, built on the will of the legislature, is today an  interesting issue, considering its differences with logical legal positivism, because it is based on a political decision. Being constructed on a willed decision, it is intertwined with the need for constant recourse to the courts of justice to settle pre- or post- legal questions, regarding radical anthropological or existential problems of one individual or of the whole society. The studies on legal decision-making help us also to better understand recent security legislation, in some countries – including European countries – against terrorism, without any opposition from national and supranational political and legal systems.

Keywords: Law – Courts of Justice – Costitutitional Charters – Legal decision-making – Security Stat

Mounier: persona e comunicazione di Gennaro Cicchese

Abstarct: Questo saggio affronta il rapporto tra persona e comunicazione in E. Mounier. La persona è un essere relazionale, segnato da una capacità di apertura infinita al mondo e agli altri. Ciò accade attraverso un processo di personalizzazione: prendere le distanze dall’isolamento dell’individuo per mettersi in gioco nella relazione e trascendersi nel dono di sé. Per attuare ciò bisogna passare dalla vita anonima e indifferente a quella personale e solidale attuando una rivoluzione personalista e comunitaria: si tratta di un vero rinascimento, perché la dimensione personale è anche e costitutivamente interpersonale. La comunicazione costituisce un fatto primario, segnato da un movimento che Mounier riassume in cinque parole: uscire da sé, comprendere, assumere, dare e essere fedele, in uno spirito di libertà e gratuità che è la quintessenza dell’essere personale, e si compie nell’amore. Uno scacco alla comunione è sempre possibile perché l’esistenza umana è segnata da opacità, perché il dialogo rischia il malinteso e l’essere che noi siamo non è sempre amore da mattina a sera. Tuttavia il valore antropologico e ontologico della comunicazione è riaffermato insieme a quello dell’unità dell’umanità nel suo percorso storico.

Keywords: Persona, Comunicazione, Dialogo, Comunione, Rinascimento, Mounier.

Definire il ruolo dello scienziato sociale di Enrico Damiani di Vergada Franzetti

Abstract: This work deals with the role of the social scientist in the production process of knowledge that can be called scientific, considered in the light of the responsibility that the researcher takes in critical terms towards the reality being analyzed  and self-criticism against the activity carried out, in order to avoid the risks associated with easy exploitations or suspected inactivity.

Keywords: role – social scientist – sociology of law – scientific  knowledge  

Violence de l’état en Afrique di Jean-Claude Angoula

Abstract: This article aims to return to the lively and fascinating debate of two decades ago between two authors, Achille Mbembe and Patrick Chabal, on the definition of the concept of violence in political terms. Achille Mbembe supports the thesis of the causal relationship between three phenomena, namely the exercise of power and coercion, the production of violence and the dynamics of accumulation. However, according to him, it is necessary to pose the problem from the African “symbolic sites”, and not “pseudo-scientific discourses which, in the field of political and economic analysis, claim to summarize Africa of a single word: crisis ” .

Keywords: politics, political violence, sociology, crisis

La sociologia del derecho y la investigacion social di Claudia Roxana Dorado

Abstract: En este artículo se reflexiona sobre la formación, constitución y consolidación de la enseñanza de la Sociología Jurídica en el ámbito de la Cátedra de Sociología en la Facultad de Derecho, de la Universidad Nacional de Córdoba (UNC), República Argentina.  La catedra de Sociología en la Facultad de Derecho de la UNC fue creada en 1907, pasando por la misma distintos profesores, con distintas posiciones teóricas y prácticas, cada uno de ellos incorporan su impronta y fueron constituyendo un campo de formación así como una forma de investigación jurídica o sociológico jurídica. En los inicios la Cátedra se denominó “Sociología” y pasó a denominarse “Sociología Jurídica” con la Reforma del Plan de Estudios del año 2000. En este contexto resulta interesante reflexionar sobre las figuras, obras, temas y corrientes intelectuales preponderantes a mas de 100 años de creación de la Cátedra de Sociología en la Facultad de Derecho de la Universidad Nacional de Córdoba.

Keywords: Cátedra de Sociología Jurídica-UNC- corrientes intelectuales-investigación social